NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 6 Citizenship
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 6 NCERT Textbook Questions Solved
Citizenship as full and equal membership of a political community involves both rights and obligations. Which rights could citizens expect to enjoy in most democratic state today? What kind of obligation will they have to their state and fellow citizens?
Citizenship refers to a full and equal membership of a political community, i.e. a political identity to an individual by its state. A citizen in a democratic state can enjoy the following rights:
- A support and protection from state to travel anywhere in the state.
- Some political rights to vote, to contest elections, to hold public offices, etc.
- Civil rights like freedom of speech and expression.
- Social-economic rights, i.e. equal opportunities, right to education, right to minimum wage, etc.
- Along with the exercise of certain rights the citizens are supposed to fulfill some obligations
also towards state and its fellow citizens as:
- Citizenship involves some obligations towards state and its fellow citizens.
- These obligations are the outcomes of considerations to be inheritors and trustees of culture and natural resources of the country.
- These obligations do not include only the legal obligations provided by the state but these expect some moral obligations to participate, contribute and to share the life of community, etc.
All citizens may be granted equal rights but all may not be able to equally exercise them. Explain.
- The full and equal membership refers to all citizens either rich or poor should be granted certain basic rights along with a minimum standard of living by the state. But all of them may not be able to exercise them equally due to poverty, like illiteracy or social -economic conditions, etc.
- As the problem of a large population of slum-dwellers and squatters in urban areas, though they may do some necessary and useful work at low wage’s they may be balanced for straining the resources of the area or to expand crime and diseases.
- The authorities in cities hardly spend any amount on slum dwellers for their betterment. Though some NGOs are taking initiatives for them, i.e. a national policy was also framed in January 2004 on urban street vendors.
- The slum dwellers are also becoming aware of their rights but still, they are not able to exercise even their basic political rights, i.e. right to vote because it requires a permanent address which is not possible for them to provide.
- The other groups are the tribal people and forest-dwellers because these people are dependent on access to their natural resources and they face a threat to their livelihood.
- Governments are struggling with the problem how to protest the problems of tribal people and their habitat without hampering the development of country.
- To ensure equal rights and unities for all citizens cannot be a simple matter for any government. If the purpose is not just to make policies to apply, in the same way but to make people more equal, the different needs and claims of people would have to be taken into account when framing policies.
Write a short note on any two struggles for full enjoyment of citizen rights which have taken place in India in recent years. Which rights were being claimed in each case?
- The Constitution of India has made an attempt to provide equal membership to the groups which are different, i.e. Dalits, ST’s, and women, etc.
- Even the efforts have been made to cover some remote communities in Andaman and Nicobar Islands who had little contact with modern civilization.
- The various movements have taken place for the groups mentioned above, i.e. women, SC’s, ST’s, people displaced due to developmental projects of the government and 33% seats have been reserved for all of them.
- In a democratic state, the demands of marginalized people have been negotiated, i.e. 27% reservation has been provided for OBC’s in all educational institutions.
- The women have also demanded the reservation of 33% seats in state legislative assemblies and Lok Sabha.
What are some of the problems faced by refugees? In what ways could the concept of global citizenship benefit them?
Refugees face the following problems:
- Inspite of restrictions, and creating fences, considerable migrations of peoples takes place.
- Refugees may be forced to live in camps or illegal migrants.
- People may be displaced by wars or Tsunamis, famine or earthquakes, etc. and no state is willing to accept them and they cannot return to their home state also.
- Refugees cannot work legally or educate their children or acquire property.
- To sort out the problems of refugees, the United Nations has appointed a High Commissioner for refugees to support them.
The concept of universal citizenship has benefited to the refugees:
- It might make it easier to deal with the problems to be extended across national borders.
- It may need cooperative action by the people and government of various states.
- It can find an acceptable solution on the issues of migrants.
- It can ensure some basic rights and protection regardless of the country in which they are living.
Migration of people to different regions within the country is often resisted by the local inhabitants. What are some of the contributions that the migrants could make to the local economy?
- Migration takes place from time to time cities, regions or nations.
- If jobs and medical facilities and facilities provided by the state are limited along with natural resources it may restrict the entry of outsiders even in the case of fellow citizens.
- Many similar struggles also have taken place in different parts of the world, i.e. Mumbai for Mumbaikars, etc.
These migrants are supportive to the local economy in the following manner:
- Slum-dwellers contribute to economy through their labour as hawkers, petty traders, plumbers, workers, mechanics, petty traders, etc.
- Migrants perform and do necessary and useful works often at low wages.
- Small business, i.e. tailoring, textile printing, etc. can also be developed in slum areas.
“Democratic citizenship is a project rather than an accomplished fact even in countries like India which grant equal citizenship”. Discuss some of the issues regarding citizenship being raised in India today.
- People displaced by war (in 1971 and afterwards from Bangladesh) or famine or internal or external disturbances (from Afghanistan, Pakistan, Burma, Myanmar, etc.). These people were forced to become refugees in their own or neighboring countries.
- India prides itself on providing refuge to the prosecuted people, i.e. Dalai Lama and his followers in 1958 entry of people from neighboring countries has taken place along all the borders of states of India and process continues.
- These may be people from Asia and Africa who provide paid agents to smuggle them into India for terrorist work or for smuggling drugs.
- Many refugees remain stateless for many generations living as an illegal migrants. And only a relatively few are granted citizenship.
- Such problems are a challenge in front of democratic citizenship where the rights and identities should be available to all equally.
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 6 NCERT Extra Questions Solved
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 6 NCERT Very Short Answer Type Questions
What do you mean by a citizen?
A citizen is a person who is a member of a state to enjoy civil and political rights and participate in the governing of a country.
Mention any two laws dealing with citizenship in India.
- Constitution of India
- Citizenship Act of 1955
The first tells us who can be called a citizen of India and later one deals with acquisition and lost of citizenship.
What is a democracy?
A democracy is a government of the people, for the people and by the people.
Who is a natural born citizen?
A natural born citizen is the person who is either born in a country or if his parents are citizens of that country.
What is naturalization?
Naturalization is the process of acquiring citizenship.
Who is an Alien?
Alien is a person who temporarily lives in a country other than his own and does not enjoy political rights like the citizen of that country do.
What is expected by the citizens from their state?
Citizens may expect certain rights from their state and help and protection wherever they may travel.
What happens if a person stay away from one’s country for many years?
The person may lose the citizenship and the number of years for absence varies from one state to another.
Citizenship can be defined as a full and equal membership of a political community.
Mention any one important quality of a good citizen.
A good citizen should be ready to serve one’s country during any crisis like war and take up any compulsory service demanded by state.
Why is the full membership of a state important?
The full membership is important because no one wants to live up as a refugee or stateless when no state is willing to grant them membership. Hence, these people do not enjoy any rights granted by the state. As Pakistani refugees struggled in the middle East to obtain full membership of a state of their choice.
How can we say that lack of education is a big obstacle to any kind of progress?
Lack of education leads to perpetuation of bad customs and superstitions, i.e. many people believe in early marriages, dowry and many have lost their young daughters to bride burning and when girls are going into space, such attitude is a great obstacle.
What is the role of modern state in the citizenship?
In the modern state, collective political identity is provided to their members as well as certain rights. Therefore, the people think of themselves as Indians, or Americans, or French or Japanese or Germans, depending on the state which they belong to.
How did the liberation of East Pakistan affect the citizenship in the year of 1971?
If a territory becomes a part of another country, then all the people acquire citizenship of that country automatically, i.e. in 1961, Goa was liberated from Portugal and all the persons in Goa became the citizen of India. Hence, the citizens of East Pakistan got the citizenship of Bangladesh.
What rights of common nature have been granted to citizens by different states?
The rights of common nature vary from state to state but most common are political rights, i.e. the right to vote, right to contest election, to form political parties, etc. And civil rights, i.e. freedom of speech or belief as well as socio-economic rights, i.e. right to minimum wage or rights to education, equality of rights and status, etc.
What is the role of a citizen in a democracy?
1. Every citizen must participate actively in a democracy to make it successful.
2. Every citizen enjoys political rights and right to express oneself but every citizen is expected to perform certain duties:
- To maintain democracy.
- To have a clear conception of one’s own rights.
- Duties towards nation, fellow citizen and family, etc.
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 6 NCERT Short Answer Type Questions
How can the citizenship be acquired?
Citizenship can be acquired through the following ways:
- By the bond of marriage, a person can acquire citizenship, i.e. if a foreigner woman marries an Indian man, citizenship of India may be acquired.
- To purchase immovable property, if a person is allowed, one can acquire citizenship, i. e. purchase of land or house.
- If a foreigner has been appointed to a government office, one can acquire citizenship of that country.
- By acquisition of territory, the people can acquire citizenship, i.e. liberation of Goa in 1961 and Goans acquired citizenship of India.
Distinguish between a citizen and Alien.
- A citizen owes allegiance to one’s country whereas an alien does not owe allegiance.
- A citizen can be compelled to join military service at the time of war whereas an alien can be compelled to join military service under any situation.
- A citizen enjoys fundamental and political rights but an alien does enjoy any right to participate in government process.
In what circumstances, a citizen can lose one’s citizenship?
In the following circumstances:
- The most common reason is marriage, if an Indian woman marries a foreigner, her citizenship of India is lost to acquire the citizenship of her husband’s country.
- If a person is appointed in the service of foreign government, one can lose the original citizenship.
- If a person takes up the services of a foreign defense forces, the original citizenship is lost.
- If a person decides to settle down in another country, one may lose the original citizenship.
- The criminal acts of a person may also lose their original citizenship, i.e. to commit a serious crime, prove disloyalty to the country or to acquire citizenship by fraud.
Mention the major hindrances in the way of good citizenship.
- If people do not participate actively in a political activity, good citizenship may not be acquired.
- Lack of education leads to perpetuation of bad customs and superstitions due to people’s ignorance and illiteracy in discharging their obligations and responsibilities.
- Poverty may provoke the people to commit wrong in order to feed themselves and their family.
- Narrow groupism and factionalism based on caste and religion is very dangerous for the unity of nation. It have a wrong order of loyalties, i.e. to attach greater importance to less important issues and create tensions.
What is the relationship between the citizenship and rights?
- The people of a country require rights to participate in the running of government.
- In a modem state, some fundamental rights are granted for the development of both the citizens and the state, i.e. India.
- The state expects to perform some duties by citizens in reference of granting citizenship to them.
“Education plays a crucial role in making individuals into better citizens”. Justify the statement.
- Education supports individuals to recognize good and bad laws and customs.
- Education teaches citizens to protest in a constitutional manner.
- The example of peaceful protest can be taken from Japan where workers put on black bands on arms and work to make over production.
How does constitution commence the citizenship?
- The one who has born in the territory of India or
- The one, whose parents have been born in the territory of India or
- The one, who has been ordinarily resident in the territory of India for not less than five years.
How the original citizenship may be lost?
- The absence of a person to stay outside the country for a long time but the period of absence varies from one country to another country.
- If a person commits a serious crime, prove disloyal to the country or acquired citizenship by fraudulent practices.
- If a person applies for citizenship of another country to be granted. This process is called naturalization.
What is Global citizenship?
- Global citizenship connect the people of different parts of the world through the means of communication, i.e. internet, television, radio, etc.
- Global citizenship acquires sympathies to help the victims of flood, war, terrorism, Tsunami, bird flu, plague, etc.
- Global citizenship though does not exist, it is a sense to be linked to each other across national boundaries.
- It needs cooperative action of people and governments of many states.
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 6 NCERT Passage-Based Questions
Read the passage (NCERT Textbook, page 81) given below carefully and answer the questions that follow:
During seventeenth to twentieth century, white people of Europe established their rule over the black people in South Africa. Read the following description about the policy practices in South Africa till 1994.
The whites had the right to vote, contest elections and elect government; they were free to purchase property and go to any place in the country. Blacks did not have such rights. Separate colonies for whites and blacks were established. The blacks had to take ‘passes’ to work in white neighborhoods. They were not allowed to keep their families in the white areas. The schools were also separate for the people of different colour.
1. What did Europeans do in South Africa in the Seventeenth to the twentieth centuries?
2. Mention the relationship of different groups in South Africa.
3. How the Blacks were treated by the Whites?
1. The White people of Europe established their colonial rule over the Black people (minorities) in South Africa.
2. They followed the policy of apartheid.
The Blacks were not treated as a human beings by the Whites.
The Blacks had to struggle for many years to get full membership as well as to acquire various rights.
3. The Blacks were treated as:
- A second class citizens deprived of justice and rights.
- They had to live in separate colonies and their children studied in separate schools.
- They were supposed to keep their families away from White areas as well as performed some tasks in White colonies on getting a pass.
Read the passage (NCERT Textbook, page 83) given below carefully and answer the questions that follow:
The 1950’s witnessed the emergence of Civil Rights Movements against inequalities that existed between black and white populations in many of the southern states of the USA. Such inequalities were maintained in these states by a set of laws called Segregation Laws through which the black people were denied many civil and political rights. These laws created separate areas for colored and white people in various civic amenities like railways, buses, theatres, housing, hotels, restaurants,, etc.
Martin Luther King Jr. was a black leader of the movement against these laws. King gave many arguments against the prevailing laws of segregation. First, in terms of self-worth and dignity every human person in the world is equal regardless of one’s race or colour. Second, King argued that segregation is like ‘social leprosy” on the body politic because it inflicts deep psychological wounds on the people who suffer as a result of such laws.
King argued that the practice of segregation diminishes the quality of life for the white community also. He illustrates this point by examples. The white community, instead of allowing the black people to enter some community parks as was directed by the court, decided to close them. Similarly, some baseball teams had to be disbanded, as the authorities did not want to accept black players. Thirdly, the segregation laws create artificial boundaries between people and prevent them from cooperating with each other for the overall benefit of the country. For these reasons, King argued that these laws should be abolished. He gave a call for peaceful and non-violent resistance against the segregation laws. He said in one of his speeches: “We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence.”
1. Why the 1950 is an important year in the history of US?
2. Who was Martin Luthar King Jr.?
3. What do you mean by ‘segregation laws’?
1. The 1950s witnessed the emergence of civil rights movement against inequalities prevailing between blacks and whites in southern states of USA.
2. He was a black leader of the movement against segregation policies.
3. Segregation laws were the laws in the southern states of USA to maintain discrimination and inequalities between the blacks and whites.
These laws denied many civil and political rights to the black people.
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 6 NCERT Long Answer Type Questions
What are the qualities of a good citizen?
- To cast one’s vote in the interest of country.
- The right to vote should be exercised without any influence of narrow loyalties of caste, colour, religion, etc.
- A good citizen must be aware of one’s duties also to perform as required.
- A good citizen must invest on welfare activities for citizens, i.e. educational institutions, hospitals, public transportation, etc.
- A good citizen should protect and maintain the public property.
- A good citizen should pay one’s taxes honestly and regularly to contribute to the state.
- A good citizen should know to control emotions and protest in a peaceful manner if required.
- A good citizen should possess a high moral character.
- A good citizen obeys the laws of state and respect the right of other citizens also.
Mention the characteristics of white colonial rulers’ policy practicised in South Africa till 1994?
- Seperate colonies for whites and blacks were established.
- The blacks were not allowed to keep their families in white areas.
- The blacks had to take passes to work in white colonies.
- Even the schools were separate for the people of different colours.
- The blacks of South Africa did not enjoy the rights, i.e. political, civil, economic, etc.
- All the adult whites enjoyed the right to vote, contest elections and elect government.
- Whites were free to purchase property and go to any place in the country.
Mention the ideas and contribution of Martin Luther King Jr. in the movement launched for civil rights in the USA.
- Martin Luthar King Jr. gave many arguments against the prevailing laws of segregation, i.e. inequality, wrong practices of segregation, etc.
- The male person has to broom the house and to throw the waste in the dustbin.
- King argued that the segregation is like a social leprosy on the body politic because it inflicts deep psychological wounds on the people who suffer as a result of such laws.
- Some baseball teams has to be disbanded as the authorities did not want to accept black players and these laws created artificial boundaries between people and prevent them from cooperating with each other for the overall benefit of the country.
- Hence, these laws should be abolished earliest possible.
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 6 NCERT Picture-Based Questions
1. Read the cartoon (NCERT Textbook, page 85) given below and answer the questions that follow:
1. What does the cartoon represent?
2. What are the persons performing in the cartoon?
1. Cartoon comments on the life of urban Indian middle class without immigrant workers.
2. Ladies or woman of middle class families are cleaning and washing their utensils.